Friday Sober Jukebox – The Boys Are Back in Town

Boys are back in townSo I don’t know if I’m just hankering for an excuse to put a photo of DCI Hunt from the excellent TV series Life On Mars up (who I loved) but there have been a couple of news stories of late about men and drinking that link this image and Thin Lizzy (which also featured heavily in the series) tune that the jukebox is featuring – ‘the boys are back in town’ in my head.  Male sober bloggers are a rarer breed and so when I see a news article featuring the voices of men I am heartened.  Like this ‘comment is free‘ in The Guardian recently:

What it’s like to quit drinking, by those who’ve done it – or are trying

Brits’ relationship with alcohol has come under the spotlight, with experts calling for warnings on all alcohol – and saying that men in particular refuse to believe the risks. This comes as data shows that millions of middle-aged men drink more than is recommended in new government guidelines – the limit was lowered in January for men from 21 units a week to 14, the same as women.

For some, their relationship with alcohol is such that they decide to stop drinking completely, either for life or for a few months. This can be for a variety of reasons – to tackle more severe problems such as alcoholism or simply for better health.

We spoke to five people about the moment they decided to quit, and how hard it was. Here are their stories

Steve Craftman, south Wales: I never feel more alone than when I’m with a group of partying drunks

Max Dalda Müller, Somerset: I was drinking 15-20 cans of Special Brew a day

Charlie Doeg-Smith Dundee: I intend to give up for good but I know it won’t be easy

Anonymous, London: I managed to pull myself back from the brink

Here’s the Drinkaware charity news release that prompted the responders above and the original news story:

Experts call for warnings on all alcohol as men refuse to believe risks

“More than half (53%) of middle-aged men drinking above the low-risk guidelines do not believe they will incur increased health problems if they continue drinking at their current level, with almost half (49%) of these drinkers also believing moderate drinking is good for your health,” says the organisation.

It also prompted this considered response from Alcohol Policy UK:

Do risky drinkers consider their drinking ‘problematic’?

Understanding how many at risk drinkers do not consider themselves to be, and the reasons behind this, can be considered important from policy and practitioner perspectives. Interventions tend only to be effective where they appreciate the drinker’s beliefs and motivations; brief intervention approaches may sometimes ‘work’ because they initiate awareness of risk in the first instance, or for others because they help a person to resolve ‘ambivalence’ and enhance motivation.

Maybe there is something of the Gene Genie (aka DCI Gene Hunt) about this denial of the risk of alcohol to men?  Maybe some male readers of my blog would like to share their thoughts 🙂

Over to Phil Lynott & Thin Lizzy 😉

PHE One You

PHE One YouIn March Public Health England (PHE) launched their brand new health campaign One You. They reported that the response so far was fantastic and they were delighted to see such a positive reaction in the media, from our partners and from the public online.

The image is a screen grab of what it looks like and here are some of the categories and areas for information around drinking.

Drink and you

It may seem like you don’t drink much, but a drink or two most evenings can do harm to your body. From making you gain weight to increasing your risk of cancer, alcohol can have serious effects on your body.

The more you drink, and the more often, the greater the risk to your health.

It has further information headings covering being drunk, booze and your body and other health worries.

Why cut down?

If you regularly drink above the lower risk guidelines, cutting back on alcohol can help your general wellbeing. Once you start cutting back, you’ll probably notice the benefits. The biggest benefit is the reduced risk to your health, but there are lots of others, too.

Medical warning: If you have physical withdrawal symptoms (shaking, sweating or feelings of anxiety until you have your first drink of the day) you should take medical advice before stopping completely – it can be dangerous to do this too quickly and without proper advice and support. Call Drinkline free on 0300 123 1110 for more advice.

Further subheadings look at: Be healthier, save some cash and feel full of beans.

Drink less

It’s important to know how much you are drinking and that there are easy ways you can cut back, without cutting alcohol out completely.

You could try making some simple swaps when you’re out, or, if you drink every day, having at least a couple of booze-free nights each week.

And further advice entitled: Tools to cut down, top tips to drink less and need more support.


It looks really good and is an improvement on the Change for Life campaign in my opinion.  Thanks Public Health England! 🙂

PS New header image time – the Great Barrier Reef in preparation for our summer 1000 day reward 😉

Fresh calls to revisit £21 billion cost figure

annual cost of alcohol harmThis was an excellent write up by Alcohol Policy UK of a new article in Addiction in March looking at calls to revisit the costs of alcohol-related harm.  This is what they had to say:

A new journal article has prompted fresh calls for a comprehensive analysis into the costs of alcohol to society. The study suggests the widely cited £21 billion figure relies on data that is ‘between 4 and 12 years out of date’ and is susceptible to a number of different assumptions. See Politics UK article

Authored by Institute of Alcohol Studies’ (IAS) policy analyst Aveek Bhattacharya, the paper also argues that policy-makers, academics and non-governmental organisations should be more careful in their use of these numbers. The cost to society is often central to arguments for stronger alcohol policy – £21 billion is around double the amount generated from alcohol tax revenue. However opponents have often questioned the figure’s relevance, or inferred only ‘direct’ costs to the taxpayer should be considered. The analysis though suggest while ‘narrower’ estimates may be relevant in specific contexts, ‘optimal policy should take a holistic view of all the relevant costs and benefits’. 

No doubt then a detailed revision to the figure, which originates from a 2003 Cabinet analysis [pdf]would be widely welcomed. However a parliamentary question last year identified the Government had ‘no plans’ to commission a further review of the costs. Last year a Findings bulletin explored some of the history behind the figures, and a series of studies exploring various issues of alcohol costs to society are open access.

Why might the Government not wish to undertake this work? Perhaps because resources are increasingly under pressure, and indeed it is a complex question to answer. Crucially, identifying the ‘indirect’ costs leads to a series of difficult questions, but without which will only under-estimate the relevant costs to society. An issue that is also raised in debates over how tax may be used to recoup or indeed prevent alcohol harms and associated costs. Recent budget decisions have not been sympathetic to calls from public health groups on this issue.

My mother gets drunk pretty much every night and I don’t know what to do

question markThis was an open letter in The Guardian Life and Style Private Lives in March about a parent who is drunk every night from a concerned adult family member.  There are over 240 comments in response and I will highlight only the first two but some of the rest are worth a read.

It has become clear that my mother drinks far too much and does not have it under control. She seems to get drunk pretty much every night (drinking 15 units-plus) and I regularly see her start earlier, drink faster and finish later than anybody else, as well as “needing” a drink by mid-to-late afternoon most days. There are times when I won’t call past 9pm because I know she will be slurring, and maintaining a conversation is hard. The idea that if I had kids, I might not want to leave them with her, is particularly hard.

However, I am not sure she recognises this as a problem. We were always a family where drinking was just something we did. I feel I can see the impact of it on her physical health, mental sharpness and mood, and can’t sit by and condone it any longer. She doesn’t have any other close family left in the country, so it falls to me to talk to her, but I think she might react badly to being told what to do, or just deny things. What can I do? Should I be so frustrated that this has been left to me to deal with?

Comment most recommended:

I had exactly the same problem with my mother a few years ago. She always enjoyed a drink but it got to the point where she ‘bookended’ her days with alcohol. Her health had deteriorated; she was dangerously underweight and was easily agitated and confused. There were a number of incidents which made her private issue a very public one. Her friends felt they couldn’t intervene because they shared her lifestyle, and I was the only family member who could confront her; I reasoned that if I left her, she wouldn’t have survived another 6 months.

I had a number of different phone conversations with her, until I travelled up and stayed with her for a week. Those were some of the worst days of my life, and possibly hers too. We had blazing rows every day and were both in tears constantly.

She came to see me a few months later and had gained nearly a stone. While she still had a few drinks during her time with me, she also ate (relatively) heartily and kept it down (or up!). She kept the weight on and had plans to travel until her untimely death less than a year later due to an unrelated illness.

She had written me a card after my visit which, among other things, acknowledged her problem. This was half her battle won; she had a private agony which she had deliberately acknowledged to someone else, thereby ‘inviting’ me into that part of her life. Our love for one another strengthened due to and in spite of her issues.

This is not a prescription for action to you; I just thought that if you did consider some sort of intervention, it might give you a perspective on what good may perhaps come from it. Of course everyone has different personalities and family ties so what happened to us might not happen to you both.

Good luck to you in whatever you decide.

Second most recommended comment:

It hasn’t been left to you to deal with. It’s her problem and she has to take responsibility for it or live with the consequences if she doesn’t. Which is not to say you can’t try to intervene, and offer all the support you can if she’s willing to accept it, but ultimately this is not your burden.

240 comments within 3 days suggests to me this  is an issue for many of us …….

The Drink Less Alcohol research app

UCL drink less appA new app with added research benefits!!  This app shows how your drinking is changing, how close you are to achieving your goals and some simple things you can do today to drink less.  It’s been developed by the UCL Centre for Behaviour Change, London

Drink less alcohol app


So what’s this experiment you’re running?

We’re testing which app components are most effective at helping people reduce their drinking. We know that certain techniques work when delivered face-to-face but we don’t know how well they work when delivered by an app. The findings will form the core part of the PhDs that David Crane and Claire Garnett are completing at UCL and will hopefully help other researchers understand more about this important area.

Do I have to take part in the experiment to use the app?

No, all the app’s features will work regardless whether you participate in the experiment or not and you can opt-out of it at any time. However, we’d greatly appreciate it if you took part fully, as the information you give us will help us understand which techniques are most efective at helping people drink less.

Do I have to give you my email address?

No, and you can use the app fully either way. If you give us your address all we’ll do is email you with a brief questionnaire, the answers to which will help us learn which techniques have and haven’t worked. Plus, you’ll be entered into a draw to win a £100 voucher.

Is my information safe and am I anonymous?

Yes and yes. We treat your data with the greatest respect and make sure it’s both anonymised and stored securely.

What else can I do?

There’s a good few options in the app itself. Have a play around, you probably won’t break anything.

Any other questions? Please get in touch.

Edited to add: back from the seaside and these news stories appeared relating to this app last week!

New brain-training tool to help people cut drinking

An internationally-renowned LSE expert on happiness and behaviour has launched a free online tool to help people who want to cut down on alcohol | LSE, UK

Drink Less: Get help reducing the amount of alcohol you consume – free app

Are you looking to cut down how much you drink? If so, we can help. Drink Less is a super-easy to use app that allows you to keep track of how much you drink, set goals to drink less, get feedback on whether what you’re doing is working and access some unique and fun ways of changing your attitude towards alcohol |  Susan Michie, UK

Friday Sober Jukebox – We are family

SUMA researchThis song feels appropriate today seeing as it is my son’s birthday!  We are off as a family to the seaside for the week-end to celebrate 🙂

It also feels appropriate because it resonates with some excellent research that the University of Southampton have completed exploring the success of mutual aid in recovery as represented by the Soberistas website.  The image to the left represents the different stages relating to online identity and alcohol use that the researchers found during their grounded research qualitative study.  You can watch the full 13 minute presentation here:

SUMA sampleThis was a robust qualitative study that covered a wide representative demographic.  It was such a positive and optimistic research study of the phenomena that we know only too well out here in the soberverse to do with identity transformation.  How people can change their drinking with no professional intervention through the support of others role-modelling the behaviour around them whether as part of a fee paying community such as Soberistas, or all the other free groups that I am aware of: the BFB on FB & Yahoo, SWANS, Living Sober, Club Soda – the list is ever growing!  Plus I think that’s what us sober bloggers do too – people can come and read our stories and identify and that helps them to feel less alone and to think that change is possible.  It it both empowering and affirming to read research findings to support what we instinctively know and feel.

So over to that tune!  I feel we are a family out here too so this tune is for both my son and you my sober online family 🙂

PS I’ve been approached by the University of Southern California asking for your help in some research they are doing.

We’re interested in hearing about people’s experiences in addiction and recovery. If you are aged 18 or older, believe you have ever been addicted to drugs, alcohol, or another substance, and you have substantially reduced or entirely stopped use at any point, you are eligible to participate in our study. The study consists of an online and completely anonymous survey. We estimate that the study will take between ten and twenty minutes. Participation is voluntary.

Here is the link to the survey: 

Thank you!

Dereliction of duty: Are UK alcohol taxes too low?

pigouvian taxationThis is a new report from the Institute of Alcohol Studies, that claims that the Government’s own estimates of the social costs of alcohol imply that alcohol duty should be raised. The report summarises the economic theory underpinning alcohol taxation (including the theory of pigouvian taxation which I’m not even going to try to explain or pretend I understand!) and considers it a dereliction of duty.

Here’s the summary to their report:

There are three standard reasons why governments tax alcohol:

1. Externality Correction: to ensure that alcohol prices reflect the cost to third parties who are harmed by drinking
2. Paternalism: to reduce people’s consumption for their own good
3. Revenue Raising: to fund the government.
The UK Government estimates that externalities associated with alcohol cost England and
Wales £21 billion every year.
Alcohol duty in England and Wales currently generates only £9 billion, less than half of the
value of these externalities.
This suggests higher alcohol taxes can be justified on the basis of the harm drinking
causes to wider society alone, without considering the impact on the drinker themselves.
The lost enjoyment suffered by moderate consumers as a result of alcohol duty is
relatively small – we estimate £1.2 billion (less than 2% of market value) to be the absolute
possible ceiling of the impact. This is dwarfed by the benefits of duty, in terms of reducing
crime, healthcare savings and improving economic output, which total a value of at least
£4.4 billion.
Under certain assumptions, tax revenue should not just equal, but exceed the cost of
•If externalities are disproportionately higher at higher  levels of consumption i.e. if moving from the fourth to the fifth drink is substantially worse than moving from the first to the second
•If we think that avoiding harm to third parties should be given greater weight than the enjoyment of drinkers.  There is a strong case for paternalistic taxes on alcohol, as it is highly plausible that many people drink excessively, and this over consumption can be deterred by alcohol taxes – this adds a further reason for raising duty.  Economists are divided as to whether alcohol taxes cause less distortion to the economy than other taxes and are therefore a particularly desirable way of raising government revenue.
The interaction of alcohol taxes with other policies is complicated – stricter licensing and drink driving regulations, all else equal, mean that taxes should be lower.
On balance, these arguments suggest to us that alcohol taxes in the UK are too low.
We believe the Government should be committed to higher alcohol taxes as a result
of its claim that alcohol externalities cost England and Wales £21 billion each year.
And this was the response from Alcohol Policy UK following the recent UK March Budget
A Government release on the duty impacts though says the freeze ‘is likely to lead to a minor increase in overall alcohol consumption in the UK’, as alcohol is of course price sensitive. Indeed on the headline hitting sugar tax announcement, Osborne stated “We understand that tax affects behaviour. So let’s tax the things we want to reduce, not the things we want to encourage.” Twitter of course raised questions, including whether sugary alcoholic drinks would be affected, or whether parallels could be drawn with the 2012 headline grabbing announcement of minimum pricing – subsequently dropped – which was also timed around a budget with less than impressive economic news.

Edited to add: bearing in mind there has been a rash of stories in the last few days about rising poisonings amongst teenagers and alcohol is behind this increase one has to question pricing as a factor as the first piece from The Independent does ….

Surge in girls’ alcohol poisoning behind rise in teenage poisonings

The authors said: “One potential explanation for the increase in alcohol poisonings over time is increased availability, with the relative affordability of alcohol in the UK increasing steadily between 1980 and 2012, licensing hours having increased since 2003, and numbers of outlets increasing alongside alcohol harm.”

Sharp rise in UK teen poisonings over past 20 years, particularly among girls

The number of teenage poisonings over the past 20 years in the UK has risen sharply, particularly among girls, according to a new study by researchers at The University of Nottingham | University of Nottingham, UK

Rise in ‘intentional’ alcohol poisoning among teens – BBC iPlayer radio

There has been a sharp rise in the overall number of teen poisonings over the past 20 years in the UK, particularly among girls and young women, according to a new report | BBC, UK

Adult drinking habits in Great Britain

ONS 2014This is the Office for National Statistics report for 2014 looking at the adult drinking habits in Great Britain.  It makes for interesting reading and you can find the whole report here.

Here’s the main findings:

  • 28.9 million people report that they had drunk alcohol in the week before interview.
  • 2.5 million people drink more than 14 units of alcohol on their heaviest drinking day.
  • Almost 1 in 5 higher earners drink alcohol on at least 5 days a week.
  • Young people are less likely to have consumed alcohol in the last week than those who are older.
  • A higher percentage of drinkers in Wales and Scotland drink over the recommended weekly amount in one day.
  • Wine is the most popular choice of alcohol.

In Great Britain in 2014, there were 28.9 million people who reported that they drank alcohol in the week before being interviewed for the Opinions and Lifestyle Survey. This equates to 58% of the population.

Focusing on those who drank alcohol, 12.9 million (45%) drank more than 4.67 units (around 2 pints of 4% beer or 2 medium (175 millilitre) glasses of 13% wine) on their heaviest drinking day. This is a third of the recommended weekly limit – the value you would drink if you drank 14 units spread evenly over 3 days. Of these, 2.5 million (9%) drank more units in one day than the weekly recommended amount of 14 units (6 pints of beer or 1.4 bottles of 13% wine).

Young people were less likely to have consumed alcohol; less than half (48%) of those aged 16 to 24 reported drinking alcohol in the previous week, compared with 66% of those aged 45 to 64.

While overall being less likely to drink alcohol, young drinkers were more likely than any other age group to consume more than the weekly recommended limit in one day. Among 16 to 24 year old drinkers, 17% consumed more than 14 units compared with 2% of those aged 65 and over.

I was really struck by some of the graphics as they paint such a clear picture – so for example this one about earnings and alcohol consumption:

income and drinkingFocusing on frequent drinkers, those who drink on at least 5 days of the week, individuals with an annual income of £40,000 and over were more than twice as likely (18%) to be frequent drinkers compared with those with an annual income less than £10,000 (8%).

It presents a fascinating insight into teetotalism, drinking in the week before interview, frequent drinking and units drunk, including changes in drinking patterns in recent years.

And these were all the news stories that followed:

2.5m Brits bust weekly alcohol limit in a day

Around 2.5 million people in Great Britain – 9% of drinkers – consume more than the new weekly recommended limit for alcohol in a single day, latest figures from the Office for National Statistics show. The 2014 data predates the new limit of 14 units of alcohol per week for men which began in January 2015 | BBC, UK

Younger people drink less but binge when they do, figures show

ONS study reveals picture of UK’s drinking habits and shows higher earners drink at least five days a week | Guardian, UK

Wales tops alcohol binge drinking stats in ONS survey

People in Wales are more likely to be binge drinkers than anywhere else in Britain, new figures have revealed | BBC, UK

I’m sick of explaining why I am teetotal

The UK is slowly drying out but as a teetotaler, I can tell you our attitudes toward drink aren’t changing anytime soon | Independent Voices, UK

The party’s over for young people, debt laden and risk averse

The drinks industry seeks to solve the conundrum of the monastic twentysomething by “premiumisation” (getting them to spend more on the few drinks they will buy). We have to understand it as a challenge broader than the market | Guardian, UK

Any thoughts from you?


There’s no such thing as an addictive personality

the conversationAnother excellent piece from The Conversation in March looking at the topic of addictive personality.

“Life is a series of addictions and without them we die”.

This is my favourite quote in academic addiction literature and was made back in 1990 in the British Journal of Addiction by Isaac Marks. This deliberately provocative and controversial statement was made to stimulate debate about whether excessive and potentially problematic activities such as gambling, sex and work really can be classed as genuine addictions.

Many of us might say to ourselves that we are “addicted” to tea, coffee, work or chocolate, or know others who we might describe as being “hooked” on television or using pornography. But do these assumptions have any basis in fact?

The issue all comes down to how addiction is defined in the first place – as many of us in the field disagree on what the core components of addiction actually are. Many would argue that the words “addiction” and “addictive” are used so much in everyday circumstances that they have become meaningless. For instance, saying that a book is an “addictive read” or that a specific television series is “addictive viewing” renders the word useless in a clinical setting. Here, the word “addictive” is arguably used in a positive way and as such it devalues its real meaning.

Healthy enthusiasm … or real problem?

The question I get asked most – particularly by the broadcast media – is what is the difference between a healthy excessive enthusiasm and an addiction? My response is simple: a healthy excessive enthusiasm adds to life, whereas an addiction takes away from it. I also believe that to be classed as an addiction, any such behaviour should comprise a number of key components, including overriding preoccupation with the behaviour, conflict with other activities and relationships, withdrawal symptoms when unable to engage in the activity, an increase in the behaviour over time (tolerance), and use of the behaviour to alter mood state.

Other consequences, such as feeling out of control with the behaviour and cravings for the behaviour are often present. If all these signs and symptoms are present then I would call the behaviour a true addiction. But that hasn’t stopped others accusing me of watering down the concept of addiction.

The science of addiction

A few years ago, Steve Sussman, Nadra Lisha and I published a review examining the relationship between eleven potentially addictive behaviours reported in the academic literature: smoking tobacco, drinking alcohol, taking illicit drugs, eating, gambling, internet use, love, sex, exercise, work and shopping. We examined the data from 83 large-scale studies and reported a prevalence of an addiction among US adults ranged from as low as 15% to as high as 61% in a 12-month period.

We also reported it plausible that 47% of the US adult population suffers from maladaptive signs of an addictive disorder over a 12-month period and that it may be useful to think of addictions as due to problems of lifestyle as well as to person-level factors. In short – and with many caveats – our paper argued that at any one time almost half the US population is addicted to one or more behaviours.

There is a lot of scientific literature showing that having one addiction increases the propensity to have other addictions. For instance, in my own research, I have come across alcoholic pathological gamblers – and we can all probably think of people we might describe as caffeine-addicted workaholics. It is also common for people who give up one addiction to replace it with another (which we psychologists call “reciprocity”). This is easily understandable as when a person gives up one addiction it leaves a void in the person’s life and often the only activities that can fill the void and give similar experiences are other potentially addictive behaviours. This has led many people to describe such people as having an “addictive personality”.

Addictive personalities?

While there are many pre-disposing factors for addictive behaviour, including genes and personality traits, such as high neuroticism (anxious, unhappy, prone to negative emotions) and low conscientiousness (impulsive, careless, disorganised), addictive personality is a myth.

Even though there is good scientific evidence that most people with addictions are highly neurotic, neuroticism in itself is not predictive of addiction. For instance, there are highly neurotic people who are not addicted to anything, so neuroticism is not predictive of addiction. In short, there is no good evidence that there is a specific personality trait – or set of traits – that is predictive of addiction and addiction alone.

Doing something habitually or excessively does not necessarily make it problematic. While there are many behaviours such as drinking too much caffeine or watching too much television that could theoretically be described as addictive behaviours, they are more likely to be habitual behaviours that are important in a person’s life but actually cause little or no problems. As such, these behaviours should not be described as an addiction unless the behaviour causes significant psychological or physiological effects in their day-to-day lives.

Agreed and feel like this would be a useful discussion, for me not about booze but about some of my new reciprocities and the Shutterstock image that was used in the original article of syringes filled and labelled with the words ‘internet, news, social media’ seemed particularly pertinent to me!

Edited to add 19th May 2016:

This article nails pretty accurately many of the other substances, habits and behaviours I’ve struggled with since getting sober

7 Types of Addictions in Sobriety

Liverpool Drink Less Enjoy More intervention evaluation

Drink less enjoy moreIn March the Centre for Public Health at Liverpool John Moores University was commissioned to evaluate the Liverpool Drink Less Enjoy More intervention and these are the evaluation findings that caught my eye:
Key findings:
Pre-intervention (phase one) nightlife user survey:
The majority (96%) of nightlife users surveyed had consumed alcohol prior to taking
part in the survey (referred to as drinkers).
Two thirds (65%) of drinkers reported preloading and 20% en route loading before entering the night-time economy (NTE)
Preloading was significantly more common in younger people and students.
In total, median expected alcohol use amongst drinkers over the course of the night
out (including alcohol already consumed and expected to be consumed post survey)
was 15.7 units. Median alcohol use was significantly higher among males, non-
Liverpool residents and preloaders.
Over one in eight (13%) of all participants intended to drink more alcohol after leaving
the city’s nightlife (e.g. at home).
The majority (over 70%) of participants: expected their level of drunkenness to be high
when they left the city’s nightlife that night; reported their ideal level of drunkenness
as high; thought that the typical level of drunkenness that people reach on a
night out in the city centre was high; and believed that getting drunk was socially accepted in Liverpool’s nightlife.
Over six in ten participants agreed that: bar staff in the city centre do not care if people
get drunk on their premises; if someone was drunk and tried to get served alcohol on
a night out in Liverpool they would usually be served; and in the city centre it is easy
for people who are drunk to buy more alcohol.
Less than half (45%) of participants correctly reported that it is illegal for
a bar server to sell alcohol to someone who is drunk and only a third (33%) that it is illegal
for someone to purchase alcohol for a friend who is drunk.
Alcohol Policy UK’s blog on the subject:
Liverpool project reduces sales to ‘drunks’
It stands to reason that if you are a bar and your product is alcohol then you are going to sell as much as you can irrespective of the inebriation of the person asking for it right?  After all it’s all about personal responsibility as that what the drinks industry say don’t they? ……